By Hazel Carter
This is often the fourth in a sequence of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The purpose of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which grew to become fairly in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian executive to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guide. This quantity offers a grammatical cartoon of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters hide humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.
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Additional info for An outline of Chitonga grammar
It is not clear whether or not these rcmarks apply equauy to Chitong4 but they provide a basisfor funher Íesearch, 48 Neuter-Potential:this is a 'passivewithoutagent',alsowiú potentialmeaning: -mway-ik-a' scatÍeÍ(intÍ)' (-mwaya'scatter(tr)') visible,seem' -bon-ek-a'be (-bona'see') PerfectivealsocalledPersistive:úis hasthe meaning'to the utmost': -unk-ilíl-a'go awayforever,get lost' (-unka'go away') -sek-elel-a'rqoìce' (-se,ta'laugh') -yum-inín-a'dry up completély' (-yuma'beaomedry') -on-enen-a'sleepovernightin the bush (-oza'sleep') (in wait for game)' The Perfectivecan be combinedwiú other extensionssuch as the Passive, Associative-Reciprocal andCausativeI: -ang-ilil-w-a'be tightly boundup' (-anga'bind, tie') Jek-elel-an-a'forgiveeachother' (Jeka'let go') fixion: Jang-ilizy-a'stareat (lit.
One with first stemsyllableNeutral(N) and Thereare two major tone-classes, the other with Determinant(D) on úe flrst root vowel. The two verbs shovm aboveare respectivelyN (ikusala) and D (íkituma). he neverevenlooksat me, (lit. kweenda,koona, havealreadybeendiscussed on page10. g. An unextended root is saidto be simplex The most commonextensionsare shownbelow; there are often allomorphsfollowing the rules of Vowel Harmonyand ConsonantHarmonv. VerbsarequotedasstemswithoutClass15Np. ) bo-lí-kond-ed-w-e'they are pleased' (-kond-w-a 'becomepleased') Relational (also known as Applied, Prepositional or Directive): this gives úe meaning'in relation to' and is often translatedinto Englishby prepositions.
Formsareas for Series2b, but with final vowel -o: nyandáyóoyo 'l want that one' ayóoyo 'and úat one' lpgu-yóoyo 'it's that one,that'sthe one' 71góngtuyóoyo 'it's that one,that'sthe very one' Vocative Prefixes Thesereferto 1stand2nd peÍsonsonly andareattachedto completenouns: tó-btiptiti 'we adults' nó-bátúmbu termof addressto a womanwho hasgivenbirth (< +umbuka'givebirth'; 2nd personhonorificplural) the meaning'self is added: With -rni attached, ndé-mwíni'ImyselP , ó-mwíni'yolyourselfsg Table of Pronouns,I)emonstrativesand VocativeAflixes Series: la lb lst sg imé,mebo ndimé nde- 2nd sg iwé,webo núryë o- 3rd sg waló,yebo, lókwe' nguë iswë,swebo ndiswë 2a 2b 3a 3b Vocative Classl: ooyu yóoyu ooyo yóoyo Class2: lst pl 2ndpl inywé,nywebo ndinywé 3rd pl baló mbabó aaba báaba qabo báabo Class3 waló hgurró ooyu yóoyu oornt yóoyo 4 yaló njiyó eeri yéeyi eeyo yeeyo 5 lyaló ndilyó eeli leeli eelyo léelyo 6 aló ngawó qaya yáaya aayo yóq,o '7 caló ncico eecì cëecì eeco céeco 8 zyaló nztzyó eez(y)i zéez(y)i eezyo zéez(y)i 9 yaló njiyó eeyi yéeyí eeyo yéeyo 10 zyaló tvizyó eez(y)i zéez(y)i eezyo zéez(y)i 1l lwaló nduló oolu lóolu oolo lóolo 12 k4ló nkakó aaka hiaka aako káakô 13 twaló ntutó ootu tóofu ooto tóoto 14 bwaló ububó oobu bóobu oobo bóobo |5 ba'qló nku6 ooku Moku ooko kóoko 16 aló mpowó aawa wáquÌa aovìo lváav'o | | kwrÌlo nkukó ooku koofu ooko kooko 18 mwaló munó oomu móomo oomo móomu , no- I Only with d affixed; page see 43.
An outline of Chitonga grammar by Hazel Carter