By Martin Montgomery
An creation to Language and Society explores how our methods of seeing and interesting with the area might be formed through the types, structures and styles of language. This moment version comprises new fabric on gender, check in, the speech neighborhood, language and subcultures, and language and illustration.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Language and Society
For it is the syntactic element that has been lacking so far in the child’s attempts at communication. Until s/he develops such a syntactic component, the child has only partial access to the creativity and flexibility of language in its fullest sense. So s/he has to move from a simple two-level model of language, where meanings are realized directly in sound, to a more complex three-level model, where meanings are realized in sentences, and sentences are realized in sound. The emerging control of syntactic structure proceeds fairly rapidly: estimates vary but it seems likely that the majority of children develop the basic core structures of the language they are learning by about three and a half years.
During this time, he also expanded the range of functions that the protoforms could be used to realize, since he was beginning to create them for the enactment of two new kinds of purpose. First, he was developing protoforms as an accompaniment to, and initiator of, play: for example, he used a sound ‘eee’ for ‘peepo’ and another sound for ‘let’s pretend to go to sleep’. He was thus beginning to use language as a way of entering an imagined world, a function that will eventually turn into one of make-believe and story.
But the child does not accomplish this in a single step: s/he moves through intermediate and overlapping stages on the way, each stage being characterized by a different kind of syntactic model, as the child searches out and builds up the regular patterning of the adult system. The movement from holophrases to two-word utterances is begun with little more than a loose association of two holophrases of the type | ride | horse | | doll | there | | climb | up | | mommy | help | | down | there | where each half of the utterance takes a discrete, though similar, intonational configuration characteristic of the individual holophrases.
An Introduction to Language and Society by Martin Montgomery