By Margaret Coulthard
The primary obstacle of this booklet is the research of verbal interplay or discourse. this primary six chapters document and evaluation significant theoretical advances within the description of discourse. the ultimate chapters display how the findings of discourse research can be utilized to enquire second-language educating and first-language acquisition and to examine literary texts.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Discourse Analysis
Obviously, any attempt to produce a description in these terms would be an enormous and perhaps impossible undertaking, and thus all the work so far attempted within this framework is necessarily partial. The speech community The initial task is to delimit the group of speakers for whom one is going to produce 'rules of speaking'. Hymes (l 972a) stresses that it is not adequate to define a group as all those who have access to a The ethnography ofspeaking 35 particular language or dialect; he argues that it is possible for speakers to share formal linguistic features, phonology, grammar, lexis, but still to be unable to interpret accurately each other's messages.
270) points out, 'idioms are by definition non-compositional and are therefore likely to be idio- Speech aas and corroersational maxims 27 syncratic to speech communities ... however, most of the basic ... structures translate across languages'. Finally, and as Searle himself points out, most importantly, the addressee can respond to both the surface form and the underlying force: la. Can you pass the salt? Sure. (passes the salt) These examples are easy to instance and accept, but Searle goes on to generalize, suggesting that 'the man who says "I want you to do this" literally means he wants you to do it'; this leads him to argue that when such sentences are uttered the literal illocutionary act is also performed, and thus he talks of indirea speech aas, that is, speech acts performed indirectly through the performance of another speech act.
Thus: Act A or Locution He said to me 'Shoot her' meaning by 'shoot' shoot and referring by 'her' to her. ) me to shoot her. Act C or Perlocution He persuaded me to shoot her. (p. 101) It is not Austin's intention to suggest that in speaking one has the option of performing one or other of these acts; one usually performs all three simultaneously, but it is useful for analytic purposes to distinguish them. ' While 'to perform a locutionary act is in general, we may say, also and eo ipso to perform an illocutionary act' (p.
An Introduction to Discourse Analysis by Margaret Coulthard