By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, power potency and weather swap, this ebook offers an creation to Japan’s environmental rules and rules, and gives monetary analyses and RIAs (Regulatory influence research) of environmental rules carried out or deliberate via the nationwide and native governments. the outlet bankruptcy experiences environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting cars in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan executive law which calls for install of toxins keep an eye on gear in older vans that fail to satisfy emission criteria. bankruptcy four strains the influence of the NOx-PM Act at the used automobile marketplace and used automobile exports. bankruptcy five offers an financial research of a street toll relief, revealing an unforeseen unfavorable social impression: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters deal with regulations and rules with regards to power potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended various instances to handle weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the effect of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate temporary monetary affects in every one zone. additionally awarded here's an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the effect of the thought on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the position and barriers of financial versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse fuel) emission aim in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this is often the 1st ebook to guage jap environmental guidelines from an financial standpoint, utilizing various present quantitative techniques. Its findings and recommendations will profit scholars, coverage makers and govt officers in constructing and built international locations the place the general public faces comparable environmental problems.
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Additional resources for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
4 billion yen at the lowest. The finding that the highest benefit is more than double the lowest benefit results from the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the MEC. 3 billion yen at the lowest. Both values are positive, confirming the effectiveness of the VTR. Our estimates of the benefit should be interpreted with caution, as they are likely to be biased. However, the direction of the bias can be inferred and is likely to be downward for the following reasons. First, both NETCEN (2002) and Koyama and Kishimoto (2001) estimated the MEC in terms of the medical expenditure, thus excluding disutility from discomfort.
This outcome further influences the number of vehicles to be replaced. In this manner, changing T results in a change in the total cost of the VTR. Changing T also results in changes in the total benefit of the VTR in the following manner. First, a change in T influences the timing of the replacement of old vehicles with new vehicles, which naturally changes the timing of the adoption of the 2005 emissions standards at a given emissions intensity of e0. This effect in turn changes Ew, the volume of emissions under the VTR, and then changes TERt, the volume of emissions reduction achieved by the VTR in year t.
Because the price of a new vehicle is relatively higher, owners gain more income by selling them under the VTR than in its absence. To incorporate this relationship, we used the yearly average depreciation rate sr provided in the work of Kuroda et al. 72 %. Under the VTR, the income from selling a vehicle priced at P at its terminal year T is expressed as P ½expfÀsr Â ðT À r Þg where r is the initial registration year. Without the VTR, the income is P½expfÀsr Â ðT þ Y À r Þg Â expfÀi Â Y g. 4 ð2:3Þ Compliance Cost The cost of complying with the VTR for an additional vehicle, CT, is the difference between Eqs.
An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics by Toshi H. Arimura