By Geoffrey Hughes
This is often the one encyclopedia and social background of swearing and foul language within the English-speaking international. It covers a few of the social dynamics that generate swearing, foul language, and insults within the complete variety of the English language. whereas the emphasis is on American and British English, the various significant international types, comparable to Australian, Canadian, South African, and Caribbean English also are coated. A-Z entries hide the entire diversity of swearing and foul language in English, together with attention-grabbing info at the background and origins of every time period and the social context within which it chanced on expression. different types comprise blasphemy, obscenity, profanity, the categorization of ladies and races, and modal types, corresponding to the ritual insults of Renaissance "flyting" and glossy "sounding" or "playing the dozens." Entries disguise the old measurement of the language, from Anglo-Saxon heroic oaths and the fabulous strength of medieval profanity, to the stern censorship of the Renaissance and the colourful, smooth language of the streets. Social components, corresponding to stereotyping, xenophobia, and the dynamics of ethnic slurs, in addition to age and gender ameliorations in swearing also are addressed, besides the main taboo phrases and the complicated and altering nature of spiritual, sexual, and racial taboos.
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Extra info for An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, And Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World
It now carries little impact (like English twit or wally) and thus is usually reinforced by the adjective stupid. However its origins in Cockney rhyming slang were far more insulting, for in this coded language berk is the abbreviated form of Berkeley Hunt, rhyming with cunt. See also: Rhyming Slang; Stupidity. BIBLE The Bible is the central authority enshrining prohibitions against swearing, but it is also a storehouse of curses and strong language, which has attracted bowdlerism. Biblical injunctions against swearing are frequent and punitive, especially in the Old Testament.
Old English Literature. London: Macmillan, 1983. K. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Everyman’s Library. London: Dent, 1954. Mitchell, Bruce. An Invitation to Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995. Tacitus, Cornelius. Tacitus on Britain and Germany. Trans. H. Mattingly. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964. ” This equation of the most powerful swearwords with the most ancient word-stock is strictly a misconception, at best a half-truth, although it continues to be found in both learned and popular usage. S. federal judge, Frederick van Pelt Bryan, handed down a judgment in favor of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, noting that “Four-letter Anglo-Saxon words are used with some frequency” (cited in Craig 1962, 158).
Library of Congress, LC-USZC2-2563) martial rivalry. Thus the earliest hostile terms are heathen, derived from Anglo-Saxon hæþen, followed in medieval times by infidel and paynim, the old form of pagan. As the age of European exploration developed in subsequent centuries, a whole group of new terms emerged around 1600, namely savage, alien, intruder, interloper, barbarian, and foreigner. See also: Barbarian; Blason Populaire; Ethnic Insults. Bibliography Allen, Irving Lewis. The Language of Ethnic Conflict.
An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, And Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World by Geoffrey Hughes