Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno's Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas PDF

By Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno

ISBN-10: 9057025876

ISBN-13: 9789057025877

Amazon will end up a strong software for ecologists and weather modelers. It additionally comprises short experiences of pioneering pollen paintings within the Amazon so far; sections on pollen tools, pollen facts, paleoecology, and lake coring equipment.

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Example text

The process can be visualized by saying that sediment is sucked into the tube— the bicycle pump in reverse. Thus, the essentials of a piston sampler are the sample tube, a system of rods and connector to lower it through the water, and a means of holding the piston in place as the tube is pushed down past it. Holding the piston in place when at sampling depth is easy. It is simply attached to a flexible cable (wire rope), the end of which can be clamped to the raft. 1). For a piston sampler to work properly, the piston must not be able to move before its time.

Amazon Pollen manual and atlas 34 The piston cable is then clamped to the raft so that the piston can descend no further. 1 This ‘square-rod’ system works well in many lakes but it has some characteristics that we have found unsatisfactory. 2 m long) and sensitive to damage (the slightest bend will cause it to bind in the square hole). More serious in our view is the fact that it is difficult to hammer on the drill string in order to penetrate stiff clays or volcanic ash layers because there is no rigid connection between the end of the drill string (the square rod) and the sample tube holder.

The square rod slides through a square aperture in the sample tube holder until its bottom rests against the piston. The sample tube and piston are then pushed down together until the sampling depth is reached, at which point pulling on the drill string withdraws the sliding square rod until the end is clear of the inside of the sample tube. The end of the square rod is now clear of the square aperture, although still within the tube holder. Rotating the drill string (and hence the square rod) through 45° then lets its corners bear down on the sides of the square hole through which it had been withdrawn.

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Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas by Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno

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