By R. E. Anderson, J. E. Boggan, L. J. Cerullo, M. C. Chan, G. J. Dohrmann, M. S. B. Edwards, V. A. Fasano, J. M. Gilsbach, A. Harders, R. M. Ikeda, P. J. Kelly, E. R. Laws Jr., G. Lee, T. Letardi, D. T. Mason, C. R. Neblett, R. W. Rand, A. Renieri, I. L. Ri
Since the creation of electrosurgery the ideas of surgical procedure at the worried method have gone through additional advancements (bipolar coagulation, microscope), whether the method used to be no longer considerably converted. this day, laser represents a brand new "discipline", because it deals a brand new manner of appearing all uncomplicated maneuvers (dissection, demolition, hemostasis, vessel sutures). in addition, laser deals the potential of a distinct maneuver, specifically relief of the quantity of a tumoral mass via vaporization. Its program isn't constrained to conventional neurosurgery yet extends additionally to stereotactic and vascular neurosurgery. Laser surgical procedure has additionally prompted the anesthesiologic innovations. while new instrumentation has been brought: CUSA ultrasonic aspiration, echotomography, and Doppler flowmeter. i've got had the opportunity to make use of those new applied sciences all at a time and feature come to the belief that we face the sunrise of a brand new method which has already proven its validity and shortage of inconveniences, and whose item is to extend the precision of neurological surgical procedure. The technological improvement remains to be occurring, and a few advancements are to be foreseen. Laser scalpel is splitting the preliminary laser surgical procedure into NO contact and contact surgical procedure with laser. As new instrumentarium could be built, a variable and tunable beam becomes on hand. for instance, in many years unfastened Electron Laser will extra upload to the development during this field.
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Extra info for Advanced Intraoperative Technologies in Neurosurgery
When the blood flow velocity is measured according to the Doppler principle, the ultrasonic waves are emitted and received from a stationary crystal in the Doppler probe, and the erythrocytes serve as a reflector which is in motion. Thus, the difference between the emitted and received frequencies (Doppler shift) is proportional to the velocity of the red blood cells and can be expressed by the Doppler formula: 2·Fo·v·cosa F=----c where F = the Doppler frequency (Doppler shift), Fo = the frequency of the transmitted ultrasound, v = the blood flow velocity, cos a = the angle between the transmitted ultrasound beam and the direction of the blood flow (incident angle), and c = the velocity of ultrasound in the tissue (approximately 1550 cm/second).
Hartley, C. , 1981: Resolution of frequency aliases in ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocitimeters. IEEE Trans. So nics Ultrastruct. 28, 69-74. 24. Hitchon, P. , Kassell, N. , McDonnell, D. , 1979: The Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter as an adjunct to operative management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Surg. Neurol. 11, 345-347. 25. Jorgensen, J. , Campau, D. , Baker, D. , 1973: Physical characteristics and mathematical modelling of the pulsed ultrasonic flowmeter. Med. BioI. Engng. 12,404-421.
M. Gilsbach and A. Harders: Aneurysm Cases Even under the operating microscope, there are occasionally uncertainties as to the exclusion of an aneurysm and the undisturbed patency of the parent arteries. The outer aspect may be misleading and an angiographic intraoperative control is normally not available. The microvascular Doppler now offers for the first time a tool to the surgeon which allows an atraumatic, simple, repeatable and reliable electronic , , . 1kHZL- ~~, ~-,-, iE_~ . I - '. " .....
Advanced Intraoperative Technologies in Neurosurgery by R. E. Anderson, J. E. Boggan, L. J. Cerullo, M. C. Chan, G. J. Dohrmann, M. S. B. Edwards, V. A. Fasano, J. M. Gilsbach, A. Harders, R. M. Ikeda, P. J. Kelly, E. R. Laws Jr., G. Lee, T. Letardi, D. T. Mason, C. R. Neblett, R. W. Rand, A. Renieri, I. L. Ri