By Friederike Moltmann
Summary gadgets were a valuable subject in philosophy due to the fact that antiquity. Philosophers have defended quite a few perspectives approximately summary gadgets by way of beautiful to metaphysical concerns, issues relating to arithmetic or technological know-how, and, now not from time to time, intuitions approximately ordinary language. This ebook pursues the query of the way and even if traditional language enables connection with summary items in a completely systematic means. by way of making complete use of up to date linguistic semantics, it provides a far larger diversity of linguistic generalizations than has formerly been considered in philosophical discussions, and it argues for an ontological photo is particularly various from that as a rule taken with no consideration via philosophers and semanticists alike. connection with summary gadgets comparable to houses, numbers, propositions, and levels is significantly extra marginal than in general held. in its place, traditional language is very beneficiant in permitting connection with particularized houses (tropes), using nonreferential expressions in obvious referential place, and using "nominalizing expressions," corresponding to quantifiers like "something." connection with summary items is accomplished mostly in simple terms by way of 'reifying terms', akin to "the quantity eight."
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Additional info for Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language
The predicates in (54) do not display the instance-related readings that they have with kind terms. The kinds that kind terms on the view in question refer to would also have to be exempt from the domain of ordinary quantiﬁers. That is, they could not be part of the domain of quantiﬁers such as every kind, every entity, every object, or every thing. Kinds as “non-objects” would be included only in the domain of special quantiﬁers such as something or everything, not in the domain of ordinary quantiﬁers.
61) a. The team members lifted the piano. b. The team lifted the piano. (60a) and (61a) allow for both a collective and a distributive interpretation, whereas (60b) and (61b) allow for only a collective interpretation.  Predicates making reference to members of the plurality, but not to the plurality as a whole Collective predicates whose content involves reference to the members of a plural argument, but not to the plural argument as a whole, allow only for plural NPs, not collective NPs as complements (cf.
The sentences in (69) have to be understood as used in a philosophical discourse. Philosophical discourse may involve a more technical vocabulary, but it is still subject to the same rules of English as non-philosophical discourse. As such, a sentence like (69a) or (69b) can naturally function as a reply to a skeptic concerning the existence of collections or sums as entities of their own, above the individual members. Crucially, however, such a claim cannot be made by a sentence like (69a). That is, (69a) cannot possibly be used for a statement that a sum or group exists as such, as an entity beyond the individual group members.
Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language by Friederike Moltmann