By Samuel Elmo Martin
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Additional resources for A reference grammar of Korean
Vowel descriptions. The vowel chart displays a nearly maximal system. In standard Seoul speech oy (mid front rounded vowel) is not distinguished from the diphthong wey, and there is no need for the front rounded category at all. The distinction between (pyeng i) toycinta ( = tocinta) '(the illness) worsens' and (ce salami) tweycinta ( < twie cinta) '(he) drops dead' is orthographic for Seoul speakers; many pronounce the first syllable of twayci 'ta 'it's a pig' the same way, as /twey/. Moreover, in rapid speech the w will often drop, leaving /tey/ as the first syllable of all three phrases.
For ALL cases of /kpp/ ( ... ) except when the second element is clearly a form that has a basic shape with initial pp·.. ( ... ). The string /yakpalle/ can represent both yak palle 'applies medicine' and yak-ppalle 'is shrewd and quick'. ko ppalle /yakko( )ppalle/ 'is shrewd and is quick'. As in other cases where morphophonemic decisions are called for, Koreans sometimes get confused and misspell words, either in the morphophonemically safer direction (-kp-, ... ) or in their phonemic form (-kpp-, ...
7) CLUSTER REDUCTION. Unless deliberately slowing the articulations, reduce three like consonants to two (ttt -+ tt); before h reduce two like consonants to one (tth - th). It will be observed that strings of lax obstruents are not permitted: the expected kp is automatically replaced by kpp, etc. Since most cases of lax obstruent + reinforced obstruent (kpp, ... ) are the result of juxtaposing two basic lax obstruents (-k + p-, ... ), the default Hankul spelling is ···k P"' ( ... ) for ALL cases of /kpp/ ( ...
A reference grammar of Korean by Samuel Elmo Martin