By by Janessa L. Brown.
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Additional resources for A brief sketch of Urama grammer with special consideration of particles marking agency, aspect, and modality
79) Ka mo, im-ahiai ha-ma boboi tipiai da io'io ha CCJN 1S PRF-? in must ka va'ema aiha DEC turtle LOC p-onovadomudii ra. spear) CL:COND Suddenly I came to a hole full of water, and when I prodded around with my spear in the water it struck a hard surface. 6 Problematic Particles The ka particle mentioned above is one of the particles in Urama that is not easily classified. There are several others which I will present here to aid in reading glosses throughout the rest of this work. I will not attempt to discuss in detail at this point, but will simply illustrate each particle and point to further discussion where relevant.
MS 1) The nominal conjunction morpheme joins equal NPs. As shown in Example (85) ra –nominal conjunction ‘and’), ra follows each of the conjoined NPs. 3); and one labeled a postposition glossed ‘that’, not discussed in this paper, nor found in the text corpus. In further research it would be useful to check if any of these apparent homophones differ in vowel length or tone. 86) ra Yes/No Question marker Ata hivioi, omei ro a'oi ka, FDEM time shark AG say go'otoi oito? village to "Vihiao, modobo ra mo rautu odaidoimo DEC friend-VOC enough Q 1S with go-DL-PL One day the shark said, "Friend, can you come with me to my village?
For DEC Whenever the monkey saw his friend, he would drop some fruit for him. (MS 9) There is also a postposition that marks adjunct postpositional phrases of location in space, shown (77). 77) Hinita nuro then eme'ei ka 3S-AG sit DEC [omei gimini ohui da]. [shark back LOC] top Then he sat on the back of the shark. (MS 17) In the clausal use da follows a verb; in the postpositional use it follows a noun phrase. In the clausal use it carries the meaning of ‘when’ or ‘whenever’, as a postposition it is a definite location that is specified.
A brief sketch of Urama grammer with special consideration of particles marking agency, aspect, and modality by by Janessa L. Brown.